Законное увольнение недобросовестного работника

Как уволить работникаЧасто руководители вынуждены закончить трудовые отношения с подчиненным. Увольнение рабочего может завершиться его обращением в суд. Количество судебных постановлений в пользу труженика, подавшего иск о восстановлении на свою должность, в несколько раз превышает количество решений в пользу компаний. Поэтому нужно знать, как правильно уволить недобросовестного работника.

По собственному желанию

Часто возникают проблемы с тем, как законно уволить неугодного сотрудника, если он этого не хочет.

Заявление по собственному желанию может стать настоящей проблемой. Вынудить человека подписать такое заявление — хоть и быстрый, но полностью незаконный метод решения проблемы. После подписания этого документа он может обратиться в специальную инспекцию и отсудить у фирмы:

  • Компенсацию разного рода.
  • Восстановление на работе.

При этом компания будет вынуждена заплатить огромный штраф за нарушение трудового права — до пятидесяти тысяч рублей.

Легальное завершение трудовых отношений

В ТК уже записаны законные методы завершения договора по инициативе начальника. Ими и нужно воспользоваться, если человек работает некачественно. Есть несколько способов того, как уволить нерадивого сотрудника бесконфликтно:

  • Согласие по обоюдному желанию обоих сторон. Статья 78-я ТК состоит всего из одного предложения: «Трудовой договор может быть в любое время завершен по соглашению лиц ТД» и дает большой простор нанимателю. Считается для начальника лучшим способом расторгнуть договор и подходит в том варианте, если официальных предпосылок для увольнения нет, а причина есть. Она-то и обсуждается со скандальным человеком лично. Однако рабочий чаще всего ждет компенсацию за вынужденное завершение трудовых отношений или хотя бы долгий оплачиваемый отпуск. Поэтому работодателю стоит подготовиться к определенным материальным затратам. Зато, зафиксировав процесс увольнения официально, наниматель снижает риск, что сотрудник обратится в суд.
  • Как бесшумно уволить работникаРабочий отказывается. Статья 74-я предусматривает, что начальник может скорректировать график рабочих дней и условия труда (к примеру, установить сдельную оплату или перевести работу на круглосуточные смены). Еще работодатель может поменять месторасположение рабочего места или выполнить реорганизацию. Цель нанимателя — вовремя уведомить рабочих о причинах и переменах — официально и не позднее, чем за 2 месяца. Сотруднику останется или согласиться с новыми корректировками, или уволиться.
  • Большинство из официальных методов окончания трудовых отношений указаны в статье 81-й ТК «Завершение договора по инициативе нанимателя». Одна из них — сокращение численности рабочих (п. 2). О сокращении начальник должен уведомлять сотрудника письменно — не менее чем за несколько месяцев, и не производить сокращение в течение всего года. Нельзя уменьшить штат на конкретную единицу без объяснений и предложений. Начальник должен предоставить рабочему список разных вакансий — и не простых (из менеджера — в посыльные или уборщицы), а соответствующих его должности. Если человек отказался, это нужно официально оформить и выполнить сокращение.

Это реальные и безопасные способы того, как можно уволить работника, если он не устраивает работодателя. Всегда стоит задуматься, стоит ли увольнять человека, который справляется со своими прямыми обязанностями.

Определенная категория сотрудников

Наниматель не может уволить проблемного сотрудника, если:

  • Он пребывает в отпуске (ежегодном, учебном, по уходу за детьми, в отпуске без сохранения зарплаты так далее).
  • Он находится на больничном.

Как быстро и без проблем уволить работникаЭто правило будет действовать, даже если труженик работает на дому или по совместительству. Помимо этого, есть особые категории рабочих, которых либо вообще нельзя уволить по желанию нанимателя, либо для этого необходимо произвести определенную процедуру.

Еще нельзя уволить таких сотрудников:

  • Беременные.
  • Женщины, у которых есть дети младенческого возраста.
  • Одинокая мать, которая имеет ребенка в возрасте до 14 лет (малыша-инвалида).
  • Отец (опекун, попечитель), у которого на воспитании ребенок в возрасте до 14 лет без матери.
  • Представитель, считающийся одним кормильцем малыша-инвалида в возрасте до 18 лет.
  • Опекун, который является единственным кормильцем в семье с тремя и более маленькими детьми, если второй родитель не работает официально.

Необходимо проверить, что увольняемый рабочий не относится к этим категориям людей — не является, к примеру, единственным кормильцем.

Мужчина с ящиком рабочих предметов

При расторжении трудового договора с работником наниматель должен правильно выполнить всю процедуру: произвести расчет с тружеником, ознакомить его с приказом об увольнении, отдать трудовую книжку. До принятия решения начальник должен узнать все особенности увольнения определенного сотрудника. При окончании трудовых отношений стоит попросить письменного пояснения рабочего об отсутствии претензий к фирме или компании.

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