Основные положения ст. 180 ТК РФ в 2017 году

Ст 180 тк рфВопросы, связанные с положением, в которое попадают сотрудники ликвидируемой организации или предприятия, а также работники, попавшие под сокращение штата или численности персонала, рассматриваются законодательно в статье 180 ТК РФ. Трудовой Кодекс предлагает общие варианты дальнейшего взаимодействия работника и его нанимателя.

Оновные положенияс статьи

Положения, представленные в новой редакции ст. 180 ТК РФ с комментариями 2017 года, затрагивают все вопросы, которые могут возникнуть в процессе сокращения сотрудников. Статья рассматривает 4 аспекта трудовых отношений в условиях сокращения численности персонала:

  1. Ст 180 тк рф с комментариями 2017 Часть первая настоящей статьи обязывает работодателя предложить сокращаемому работнику альтернативу — вакантное место, которое будет соответствовать его квалификационным способностям.
  2. Часть вторая предусматривает заблаговременное предупреждение персонала о грядущих изменениях в структуре коллектива организации. Каждый сокращаемый должен быть извещён об изменении его положения не менее чем за 2 месяца в индивидуальном порядке и подтвердить свою осведомлённость личной подписью.
  3. В ч. 3 ст. 180 ТК РФ рассматривается порядок досрочного завершения рабочих отношений между нанимателем и сокращаемым сотрудником. В таком случае наниматель обязан предоставить сотруднику денежную компенсацию, эквивалентную заработной плате, которую сотрудник мог бы получить, работая до окончания положенного срока. Работодатель наделяется правом прекратить действие трудового договора, только имея на руках согласие работника, оформленное письменно.
  4. В части четвёртой расписаны действия работодателя в ситуации массовых увольнений. Наниматель принимает меры с учётом мнения профсоюза, при этом руководствуясь коллективными договорами и соглашениями и соответствующими нормативными актами, в том числе и ТК РФ.

Предложение сотруднику вакантной должности

Ст 180 тк рф в новой редакции с комментариями 2017Часть первая ст. 180 ТК РФ является для сотрудника гарантией того, что в условиях изменения числа рабочих мест он может остаться в организации в качестве работника. Предлагаемое нанимателем вакантное место, согласно ч. 3 ст. 81 ТК РФ, должно предоставлять к сокращаемому определённые требования в образовании и квалификации, а также к его возможности работать на вакантном месте с имеющимся уровнем опыта работы.

При отсутствии схожего рабочего места с аналогичным уровнем оплаты наниматель имеет право при согласии сокращаемого работника предоставить ему работу на нижестоящей должности или с меньшей оплатой.

Перевод сокращаемого работника на вакантное место осуществляется только при условии предоставления им письменного согласия. В противном случае, а также при отсутствии в организации подходящих вакантных мест производится его увольнение.

Работодатель, согласно законодательству, также имеет право не предоставлять сотруднику вакантную должность, которая не соответствует рассмотренным критериям. Также в его обязанности не входит обеспечение сокращаемому сотруднику возможности переобучения, даже при условии, что такое переобучение позволило бы сотруднику занять вакантное место с другими квалификационными требованиями.

Наниматель, имеющий вакансии не только в данной, но и в других местностях, обязан известить работника о наличии таких свободных мест только в том случае, если это заранее оговорено в коллективных документах или трудовом договоре.

Досрочное прекращение трудовых отношений

Чтобы уведомить сотрудника о грядущем увольнении на основании сокращения или ликвидации организации, наниматель предоставляет каждому сокращаемому работнику письмо-предупреждение в двух экземплярах. На втором экземпляре должна быть указана дата предупреждения и подпись работника, свидетельствующая о его осведомлённости.

Если работник временно отсутствует на своём рабочем месте, предупреждение направляется к нему заказным письмом. В этом случае фактической датой оповещения работника является дата получения им письма. Для обеспечения законности прекращения трудовых отношений понадобится выполнение некоторых условий:

  • Статья 180 тк рфработник получает уведомление о ждущем его изменении рабочего положения заранее — за 2 и более месяцев до увольнения;
  • наниматель предлагает работнику расторгнуть трудовой договор по причине сокращения штата, численности работающих или ликвидации организации, только после того, как сотрудник уже был извещён о предстоящем увольнении;
  • сотрудник соглашается на досрочное прекращение рабочих отношений с работодателем и подтверждает своё согласие письменно.

В соответствии с комментариями к ст. 180 ТК РФ увольнение сотрудников в 2017 году, происходящее заблаговременно по обоюдному согласию сторон, предполагает предоставление увольняемым работникам компенсационных выплат в денежной форме.

При условиях сокращения членов персонала организации, согласно комментариям к ст. 180 ТК РФ, выходные пособия в 2017 году должны быть эквивалентны размерам среднего заработка сотрудника. Расчёт размера компенсации предусматривает учёт рабочего времени, которое остаётся неотработанным до фактической даты увольнения сотрудника.

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